Heteroskedastic PCA: Algorithm, Optimality, and Applications
Anru Zhang, Tony Cai and Yihong Wu
A general framework for principal component analysis (PCA) in the presence of heteroskedastic noise is introduced. We propose an algorithm called HeteroPCA, which involves iteratively imputing the diagonal entries of the sample covariance matrix to remove estimation bias due to heteroskedasticity. This procedure is computationally efficient and provably optimal under the generalized spiked covariance model. A key technical step is a deterministic robust perturbation analysis on singular subspaces, which can be of independent interest. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in a suite of problems in high-dimensional statistics, including singular value decomposition (SVD) under heteroskedastic noise, Poisson PCA, and SVD for heteroskedastic and incomplete data.